In it I spoke about the possibility that students could technically be on-task but cognitively and emotionally unengaged in the actual learning.
For decades, much discussion and research in education circles focused on the role of time on-task and its relationship to attention and learning (Karweit, 1983; Prater, 1992). While time on task is important, as is focus and attention, true engagement in learning involves more than external behaviors as measured by time on-task. True engagement involves the mind, the body, and the soul.
As educators, we realize that not all on-task time is productive time. John Hattie, in his research synthesis Visible Learning points out that increasing time on task is pointless if the tasks themselves are not productive. Those who call for longer school days and longer school years might be wise to increase the focus on getting students engaged and productive. After all, asking students to spend more time being bored or disengaged isn’t likely going to have a positive effect.
Because not all tasks or assignments are equal in their ability to effectively engage students, educators should have a variety of strategies and approaches available when they work with students. So, here are seven more ways to go from on-task to engaged:
- Ask questions that don’t have right or wrong answers. Seek student opinions, allow argumentation, encourage persuasion, and teach students how to disagree and debate in a positive way.
- Strike a balance between praise and feedback. Grant Wiggins, co-author of Understanding by Design points out that praise, “Keeps me in the game, but doesn’t help me get any better.” While praise may encourage effort, specific feedback is necessary in order to truly learn and grow.
- Encourage self reflection and the creation of personalized goals. Teach students to track and evaluate their own learning. Some of the most valuable and long-lasting learning comes from the personal insights and “ah-hahs” we discover when learning about ourselves.
- Increase physical movement. Movement has a positive effect on learning and student achievement. Physical movement wakes up the brain by increasing blood flow, increasing certain neurotransmitters that have an impact on memory, and generally helps students be more alert.
- Increase the use of celebrations. Bobbi DePorter and her co-authors of Quantum Teaching point out that, “If it’s worth learning, it’s worth celebrating.” Classrooms should be places where there is joy, celebration, and happiness because learning is fun.
- Stress process over product. Some of our most disengaged and bored students care little about grades, points, or other “motivators” we tend to use in school. Instead of focusing on the outcome of the work (which is typically a grade), focus on the process of learning, the experiences students will have, and the personal connections they can make to ideas and content.
- Take a risk. Every day, we ask students to stretch themselves to be better, smarter, or more insightful. In essence, we ask them to take a risk and try things that may not be comfortable. Likewise, as educators, we should also be taking risks, trying out new approaches, and stretching ourselves beyond our comfort zone. When students see us modeling those same behaviors and attitudes, it can have a tremendous impact.
How do you know if students are not only on-task but engaged? What strategies to you recommend?
Post submitted by Bryan Harris, director of professional development for the Casa Grande Elementary School District in Arizona. He is the author of Battling Boredom, published by Eye On Education. More information can be found at http://www.bryan-harris.com.